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Department of History and Archaeology


Winter Semester, Core module, 10 ECTS

Instructor: Konstantinos Kopanias


This course is an introduction to the archaeology of the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in the Eastern Mediterranean. It surveys the major archaeological  sites in Anatolia, Egypt, and the Levant from the 3rd millennium to the middle of the 1st millennium BCE. An emphasis is also placed on the textual evidence, as well as the historical and socioeconomic developments through that period.

Learning outcomes

By the end of this course students should be familiar with the main sites and types of the archaeological record. 

They should also be able to

  • read primary sources critically and interpret visual images, assessing how well they function as evidence, and which kinds of sources seem biased or more straightforward
  • work with different types of archaeological information
  • compare different methods of archaeological data analysis
  • critically compare contrasting interpretations of the same material evidence
  • understand the ways in which the archaeological record facilitates the building of arguments about the past
  • work in groups
  • make and express their own opinions about the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in the Eastern Mediterranean both orally and in writing. 


Essay (3,500-5,000 words). A list of indicative topics is provided, but students are strongly encouraged to discuss and personalize the essay topic with the course coordinator. In addition, students are asked to study select research papers from the existing bibliography on the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age periods in the Eastern Mediterranean and to discuss them in class.


Bard, K.A. 2007. Introduction to the archaeology of ancient Egypt. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub.

Potts, D.T. 2012. A companion to the archaeology of the ancient Near East. Malden, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell.

Steadman, S.R., and J.G. McMahon (eds.) 2011. The Oxford handbook of ancient Anatolia, 10,000-323 B.C.E. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.

van de Mieroop, M. 2016. A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000-323 BC. Blackwell history of the ancient world. 3rd ed. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.